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More on the VW $600 Car

Volkswagen’s $600 car gets 258 mpg

July 6, 11:06 AMTrendy Living ExaminerMark Leevan

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  China launches $600 car that will get 258 mpg

This $600 car is no toy and is ready to be released in China next year.

The single seater aero car totes VW (Volkswagen) branding.

Volkswagen did a lot of very highly protected testing of this car in Germany, but it was not announced until now where the car would make it’s first appearance.

The car was introduced at the VW stockholders meeting as the most economical car in the world is presented.

The initial objective of the prototype was to prove that 1 liter of fuel could deliver 100 kilos of travel.



 Spartan interior doesn’t sacrifice safety

The aero design proved essential to getting the desired result. The body is 3.47 meters long and just 1.25 meters wide, and a little over a meter high. The prototype was made completely of carbon fiber and is not painted to save weight.

The power plant is a one cylinder diesel positioned ahead of the rear axle and combined with an automatic shift controlled by a knob in the interior.

Safety was not compromised as the impact and roll-over protection is comparable to the GT racing cars.




  $600 car gets 258 mpg

The Most Economic Car in the World will be on sale next year:

Better than Electric Car – 258 miles/gallon: IPO 2010 in Shanghai

  • This is a single seated car  

  • From conception to production: 3 years and the company is headquartered in Hamburg , Germany ..

  • Will be selling for 4000 yuan, equivalent to US$600..

  • Gas tank capacity = 1.7 gallons        

  • Speed = 62 – 74.6 Miles/hour

  • Fuel efficiency = 258 miles/gallon

  • Travel distance with a full tank = 404 miles


 Volkswagen 258 mpg car on sale in 2010




For more info: SeriousWheels


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I like Mercedes but I love Volkswagen (When is this car coming to the U.S.?)

VW To Launch 258 MPG
Car – Cost $600 US





This is not a toy, not a concept car. It is a newly developed 2-seater car in highly aerodynamic tear-shape road-proven real car. It is ready to be launched as a single-seater for sale in Shanghai in 2010 for a mere RMB 4,000 = US $600 .00 ! Interested? Wait till you learn that it will cruise at 100-120 Km/Hr with an unbelievable 0.99litre/100Km =(258 miles/gallon) !! Impressed? Totally, after you have read all the details below about the hi-tech and space-age material input into this care !!! Truly the most Economic Car in the world . Must see and read to the end and please comment !!!! The Most Economic Car in the World will be on sale next year….


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Some neat things automobile manufacturers had made for their cars

10 Most Outrageous Factory Options Ever

There are lots of cool technological innovations offered by automakers to personalize your car. These are some of the most extreme.

By Sam Foley of MSN Autos

There are really only a few important features in a car: brakes, drivetrain, seats, steering, suspension and wheels. Early vehicles were little more than an assemblage of these six elements. However, as customers got pickier and vehicles got fancier, the factory option was born. While some of these technological wonders evolved into standard equipment for modern automobiles, such as car radios and air-conditioning, not every option is destined for ubiquity. Some are good ideas that are too specialized for anyone outside of a niche audience. Others are nothing more than expensive engineering gimmicks aimed at amusing the very wealthy customers. Some options were just dumb ideas that never had a chance. Still, there’s no better way to personalize your vehicle than to order up a few options, so let’s take a look at some of the most outrageous factory-installed options ever devised.

Highway Hi-Fi

Click to enlarge pictureHighway Hi-Fi (© Chrysler LLC)

Highway Hi-Fi

In 1956, nearly a decade before the 8-track tape player emerged, CBS Laboratories developed a special under-dash record player accessory for Chrysler, DeSoto, Dodge, Imperial and Plymouth vehicles. Called the Highway Hi-Fi, this slide-out turntable was located in a shock-mounted case and played special 7-inch records using the same amp and speaker that the radio played through. The collection of little LPs included "Tchaikovsky’s Sixth Symphony," the complete score of the Broadway musical "Pajama Game," quiet jazz by Paul Weston and His Orchestra, and Gene Autry in Walt Disney’s "Davy Crockett" to keep the kids quiet — all titles from CBS’s Columbia Records division. CBS had designed the player not to skip, but it was a record player, and potholes will be potholes, so of course it did skip. Hmm, limited music selection, questionable performance — I wonder what’s on the radio?

Search for antique car radios on Bing

Steering Wheel Self-Winding Watches

Click to enlarge pictureOldsmobile Car Watch (© General Motors)

Oldsmobile Car Watch

Mechanical self-winding watches use a swinging pendulum-like rotor and ratcheting spring to capture the kinetic energy from the wearer’s movements and turn it into potential energy to power the watch. These little marvels of engineering so captivated car designers that they began to offer optional self-winding timepieces integrated right into the steering wheels of vehicles. The logic was that a nice twisty road should wind one of these things up for days. By all accounts, the first of these steering wheel tickers showed up in the 1951 Oldsmobile, then the idea caught on with several manufacturers, including multiple Chrysler brands as well as Volkswagen. But they were expensive and inaccurate compared to electric clocks powered by the car’s battery. Plus, the same spinning of the steering wheel that made these things work also made them a pain in the butt to read.

Auto Tents

Click to enlarge pictureHatchback Hutch for Chevy Vega (© General Motors)

Hatchback Hutch for Chevy Vega

Why does General Motors keep trying to strap tents to the back of its vehicles? The option was born in 1973, as the "Hatchback Hutch" for the Chevy Vega. Over the years, GM offered a tent option with the 1975 Chevy El Camino, 2001 Pontiac Aztek, and, most recently, the Chevy Silverado and Avalanche. In retrospect, it makes perfect sense that a company on the long road to bankruptcy would try to develop the perfect way to live out of your car. Off the back of a pickup truck or SUV a tent seems to offer a degree of real utility. The original Vega tent, on the other hand, rigged up off the ass-end of the sporty little hatchback and invited occupants to sleep in the trunk. One look at this contraption reveals that it couldn’t possibly have been sturdy enough to weather the unrelenting showers of laughter that must have rained down upon its owners.

View Slideshow:  Happy Trailers

Electric Shaver

Click to enlarge pictureElectric Shaver (© Ford Motor Company)

Electric Shaver, Ford Part Number B6A-18250-A

The pace of the go-go ’50s was apparently such that a man hadn’t even the time to shave before hopping in his car and heading off to work. We’ll admit that Ford simply assigning a part number (B6A-18250-A) to a Remington 60 razor with a cigarette lighter DC adapter plug barely qualifies this as an option, but it was a telling sign of the times. We can now pinpoint 1957 as the official turning point in American society when a man’s sacred rituals of the home finally found their way into the vehicle — thus, the uniquely American archetype of the corporate commuter (i.e., wage slave) who dedicates several hours a day to sitting in traffic was finally born. Sure, an electric razor in the glove compartment may seem harmless, but it’s only a hop, skip and a cultural jump between this and the moron in the fast lane yapping on a cell phone and weaving all over the interstate.

Discuss:  What factory options do you like?

Makeup Tray

Click to enlarge pictureMary Pickford Makeup Tray (© General Motors)

Mary Pickford Makeup Tray

Ladies apparently discovered in-car vanity first, because the Mary Pickford makeup tray predated in-car shavers by 18 years. This option in 1939 Chevrolets included an illuminated mirror (ooh la! la!) and a kit of beauty aids created by America’s sweetheart herself. Women could fix up their faces for a little bit of Hollywood class with Miss Pickford’s own lipstick, rouge, powder and cream. Is that a starlet in that Chevy? Very hot.

10 Most Outrageous Factory Options Ever


Swing-Away Steering Wheel

Click to enlarge pictureSwing-Away Steering Wheel (© Ford Motor Company)

Swing-Away Steering Wheel

Steering wheels, so essential for driver control, yet so inconveniently placed for ingress and egress. Before the 1960s, the steering column was a rigid, immovable component that, in addition to its main function of communicating driver intentions to the wheels, also did a pretty good job of impaling drivers during frontal collisions. It also had a nasty habit of trapping knees and thighs of occupants who just wanted to get out of the car. To solve this, Ford engineers created a system that allowed the driver to disengage the wheel from the rest of the steering column when the transmission was in park and slide it nine inches to the right. Introduced on the 1961 Thunderbird, it migrated to several other cars in the Ford lineup before swinging away into obsolescence.

Read:  Coolest New Car Tech for 2009

Granite Trim

Click to enlarge pictureGranite Trim (© Mercedes-Benz USA)

Black Granite Trim for Maybach Landaulet

When you’re rolling in a $1.3 million 2009 Maybach Landaulet, ordinary wood trim won’t do. Remember, this is a vehicle with a special cabin design that lets the superrich cruise around in the lap of luxury with the back half of the roof retracted. The soft partial convertible top above the rear-seat opens from the B-pillar back so passengers can see and be seen making the scene. Consequently, bird’s-eye maple is for peasants. You’ve just got to step up to special order the Galaxy Star Granite trim. It’s rich; it’s opulent; it’ll add lots of heft to the automobile and, thus, lessen its fuel efficiency even further. It’s just too precious.


Click to enlarge pictureAirscarf (© Mercedes-Benz USA)

Mercedes-Benz SLK350 with Airscarf

We’ll admit we sort of like the idea of this one — an HVAC feature that pumps warm air through the seat’s headrest. It allows this sexy little convertible to gently caress the back of your neck with a warm breeze as you drive with the top down on a chilly day. Mercedes-Benz introduced the feature on the 2004 SLK to encourage open-top driving in cool weather, and you can now order it on any drop-top Benz. We see only two real drawbacks to this clever little feat of HVAC engineering. The first is the inevitable slap on the face you’ll get when you spring the sultry Airscarf breeze on the unsuspecting neck of your date. (It’s a bit disconcerting the first time.) The second is a name so cheesy that I can only imagine how many people have passed on it simply because they were too embarrassed to mention it to the dealer.

Read:  Dealer Options to Avoid

Starlight Headliner

Click to enlarge pictureStarlight Headliner (© Rolls-Royce Motorcars)

Starlight Headliner

Luxury is Rolls Royce’s reason for being, leaving one to question what could the factory offer to its clientele that it doesn’t already include? The cars come standard with motorized, retractable Spirit of Ecstasy hood ornaments and pop-out Teflon-coated umbrellas hidden in secret door compartments, for goodness sake. How about a recreation of the night sky using hand-strung fiber-optic waveguide lights in the headliner? It’s true. This $8,400 option can be customized to any layout the customer desires. If a $380,000 car isn’t enough of a statement of one’s power and influence, then you can rearrange the heavens for your amusement.

Discuss:  What factory options do you like?

Aroma Diffuser

Click to enlarge pictureAroma Diffuser (© Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A.)

Aroma Diffuser

What started as an innocent stop at Taco Bell for a bean burrito has resulted in a car cabin so stinky that your Little Tree air freshener has wilted and died. You need more powerful scent technology. If you lived in Japan, you could order up an optional Air Aroma scent diffuser for your Toyota vehicle, and by harnessing the 12-volt power of your cigarette lighter, it would heat essential oils and spread a pleasing blanket of olfactory loveliness to fight back against your gut-busting flatulence.


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Crack pipe replacement on VR6 and VR5

I had thought there was more information on the Internet about this subject. I think it is funny how people called it the "Crack Pipe" and it is actually a water "by-pass-pipe". Anyhow after the wonderful dog accident I had back in November I noticed that the car smelled like antifreeze and it was rather difficult to detect the leak. It was the thermostat housing that is leaking. I had ordered the whole combo: by-pass-pipe, thermostat housing, thermostat, and water-outlet with the seals. It looked like a straight forward operation……………. wait a minute! Yes, after researching I found one person who documented this repair! Well, the whole front of the car needs to come off! Yes in order to do this correctly you need to take off the front bumper cover. I had done this on my 2002 Jetta GLS and yes it was not too bad since I just replace the headlights, but now the crossmember needs to come off as well. Good thing that Volkswagen kept this in mind because the only thing is that the cooling sytem needs to be drained and hoses disconnected. Also good because this is all on he driver’s side of the engine. Please, look at the picture I copied of this person’s website and you will get a good idea of how to do this. Just to give you an idea of the cost of components at the dealer:
Description                  Dealer Cost     Jobber Cost
By-Pass-Pipe                $50.00            $23.00
Thermostat Housing     $61.00            $49.00
Thermostat Outlet        $39.00            $29.00
Thermostat                  $60.00            $49.00
Seal Thermostat           $ 2.00             $ 2.00
Seal Thermostat Hous  $  5.00             $ 5.00
Antifreeze                    $20.00             $20.00
Also of the above is OEM material. The dealer charges approximately $400 to do this…… I will save it and make picture to post them on my space.
Good luck to these who will undertake this repair and let me know how you did or didn’t. Thanks!
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VR 6 and VR 5 engines

VR6 engine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Vr6)
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This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (September 2007)
15° VR6 top view

The VR6 engine is an internal combustion engine configuration developed by the Volkswagen Group. It is similar to the V engine, but with the cylinders offset from each other and tilted by 10.6° or 15° instead of the more common 45°, 60°, or 90°.



[edit] Description

Three types of engine: a — straight engine, b — V engine, c — VR6 engine

The name VR6 comes from a combination of V engine (German: V-Motor) and the German word "Reihenmotor" (straight engine). The combination of the two can be roughly translated as "inline V6 engine".

The configuration can also be described as a "Staggered Six", in keeping with the geometry of the Lancia Fulvia staggered-four developed in the late 1950s (a continuation of Lancia’s design practise dating back to the 1920s). Staggered engines are an amenable further development with both uneven cylinder numbers and with staggered-bank V configurations.

The VR6 was specifically designed for transverse installation in front wheel drive vehicles. By using the narrow 15° VR6 engine it was possible to install a six-cylinder engine within the existing Volkswagen four-cylinder-model engine bays. A wider V6 engine of conventional design would have required lengthening existing vehicles to provide enough crumple zone between the front of the vehicle and the engine, and between the engine and the passenger cell. The VR6 is able to use the firing interval of an inline-6 engine and, as a result, it is nearly as smooth as an inline-6.

The narrow angle between cylinder banks also allows just two camshafts to drive all of the valves and a single cylinder head to be used. This simplifies engine construction and reduces costs. In early (12 valve) VR6 engines one camshaft is used per bank of cylinders. This is most similar to the operation of a SOHC V6 engine. Later (24 valve) VR6 engines use two camshafts, the right bank camshaft operates all of the exhaust valves while the left bank camshaft operates all of the intake valves. This is most similar to a DOHC inline-6 engine.

There are several different variants of the VR6 engine. The original VR6 engine displaced 2.8 L and featured a 12 valve design. These engines produced 174 PS (128 kW/172 hp) and 240 N·m (177 ft·lbf) of torque.

[edit] Engine specifications

The engine features a cast-iron crankcase and one light alloy crossflow cylinder head with two valves per cylinder operated by chain-driven overhead camshafts. All fuel and ignition requirements of the VR6 engine are controlled by Bosch Motronic engine management. This Engine Management System features an air mass sensor, dual knock sensors for cylinder-selective ignition knock regulation, and Lambda regulation. Exhaust gases are channeled through a 3-way catalytic converter.

Volkswagen identifies the VR6 by the "AAA" engine code. It is a four-stroke, internal combustion engine with 2.8 L of displacement, though some European engines had 2.9 L of displacement (this variant identified by the "ABV" engine code). The bore diameter is 81.0 mm with a 90.0 mm stroke. The "Vee" angle is 15° and the compression ratio (CR) is 10:1.

The drop-forged steel, six-throw crankshaft runs in seven main bearings. The connecting rod journals are offset 22° to one another. Overhead camshafts (one for each bank of cylinders) operate the hydraulic valve lifters which, in turn, open and close the 39.0 mm intake valves and 34.3 mm exhaust valves. Because of the special VR6 cylinder arrangement with two rows of combustion chambers in the same cylinder head, the intake runners between the two cylinder banks are of varying lengths.

Depending on the specific generation of VR6 the difference in intake runner length is compensated in the overhead intake manifold, the camshaft overlap & lift profile, or a combination thereof.

In the original VR6 each runner is 420 mm long. Exhaust gases are channeled from two 3-branch cast-iron exhaust manifolds (one dedicated to three exhaust ports) into a sheathed Y-pipe. From there they are channeled into a single flow before passing over the heated oxygen sensor and then to the catalytic converter.

The oil pump driveshaft is driven by the intermediate shaft. Fuel injectors of the Bosch Engine Management System are mounted behind the bend of the intake manifolds. Besides being the optimum location for fuel injection, this location also helps shield the injectors during a frontal impact. The water pump housing is cast integral with the engine crankcase. VR6 engines will use an auxiliary electric pump to circulate water while the engine is running and during the cooling fan after-run cycle, in addition to the belt-driven water pump.

A replaceable oil filter cartridge is used on the VR6 engine. The sump-mounted oil pump is driven via the intermediate shaft. An oil pressure control valve is integrated in the pump.

The crankcase is made from pearlitic gray cast iron with microalloy. Two banks of three cylinders are arranged at a 15° axial angle from the crankshaft. The cylinder bores are 81 mm in diameter with a spacing of 65 mm between cylinders. They are staggered along the length of the engine block to allow the engine to be shorter and more compact than conventional V6 engines.

The centerline of the cylinders are also offset from the centerline of the crankshaft by 12.5 mm. To accommodate the offset cylinder placement and narrow "Vee" design, the connecting rod journals are offset 22° to each other. This also allows the use of a 120° firing interval between cylinders. The firing order is: 1, 5, 3, 6, 2, 4.

[edit] History

The VR6 engine was introduced in Europe in 1991 in the Passat and Corrado, and in North America the following year. The Passat, Passat Variant wagon, and US-specification Corrado used the original 2.8 L design; the European-specification Corrado and the 4WD Passat Syncro received a 2.9 L version with 190 PS (140 kW/187 hp). This version also had a free flowing 6 cm (2.5 in) catalytic converter, enlarged inlet manifold, and larger throttle body.

The 2.9 L engine, as destined for the Corrado, was originally designed to benefit from a dual-tract variable-length inlet manifold called the VSR (German: "Variables Saugrohr") and made by Pieronberg for VW Motorsport. This gave extra low-down torque but was deleted before production on cost grounds and was instead offered as an aftermarket option. The design was later sold to Schrick who redesigned it and offered it as the Schrick VGI ("Variable Geometry Intake").

In 1992, with the introduction of the Golf‘s third generation, a six-cylinder engine was available for the first time in a lower-midsize segment hatchback in Europe. North America only received this engine in 1994; at the same time the European model started to use the 2.9 L in the VR6 Syncro model. The corresponding Vento/Jetta VR6 versions appeared in the same years.

VW removed a cylinder from the VR6 in 1997 to create the VR5, the first block to use an uneven number of cylinders in a V design (other than the Honda V3 triples of MotoGP fame). This version, which had a 2.3 L capacity, was capable of 150 PS (110 kW/148 hp) and had a maximum torque of 210 N·m (154 ft·lbf). It was introduced in the Passat in 1997 and the Golf and Bora in 1999.

VW added further modifications to the design in 1999 with the introduction of the 24-valve 2.8 L VR6. This engine produced 204 PS (150 kW/201 hp) and 265 N·m (195 ft·lbf) of torque. The new version was not available in the Passat (as it was incompatible with the then-current generation’s longitudinal layout), but was introduced as the range topper in the Golf and Bora for European markets. The VR6 name was dropped as a commercial designation, and the 4WD system (4Motion) was now standard on the V6 in Europe. The corresponding multivalve V5 was only released in 2001, with a 20 PS power increase, to 170 PS (125 kW/168 hp). The multivalve V6 was introduced in North America in 2001 aboard the Eurovan producing 201 bhp (150 kW) and in the GTI in 2002 (where it retained the VR6 name).

In 1999 VW also released an updated 12-valve VR6 model for the North American market A4-chassis Golf/GTI/Jetta product line. This new VR6 improved performance via updated camshafts, variable geometry intake manifold, an increased compression ratio of 10.5:1, and updated emissions equipment. Power increased to 174 hp (130 kW) @ 5800 rpm while torque increased to 181 ft·lbf (245 N·m) @ 3200 rpm. This engine option was available from 1999.5-2002 when it was replaced by the 24-valve engine.

In 2001 the VR6 was enlarged to 3.2 L to create a limited-production, high performance, 225 hp (168 kW) version of the Beetle called Beetle RSi. The Beetle RSi was the first production vehicle to use the 3.2L VR6. This engine was later used in the Golf R32 which was also introduced in the Audi TT. According to Volkswagen this variant produced 250 PS (184 kW/247 hp) and 320 N·m (236 ft·lbf) of torque in TT trim and 241 PS(177 kW/238 hp) in R32 trim. Although it was rated at the same power as the European version, the North American R32 featured a larger Audi TT mass airflow sensor (3" in diameter compared to 2.75") and a different airbox which should have given the same 250 hp (190 kW) output of the Audi.

The 3.2 was then used as a range-topper in the Audi A3 and TT or as an entry level version in the VW Touareg and Porsche Cayenne, although the version used in the Cayenne features modifications to the head as well as the intake and timing systems.

In 2005 the European market version of Volkswagen’s sixth generation Passat went on sale with a revised version of the 3.2 L VR6 as its top-spec motor. For North America the Passat received a new 3.6 L VR6 with a narrower 10.6 degree cylinder angle, producing 280 PS (206 kW/276 hp). The 3.2 and 3.6 feature Fuel Stratified Injection. The introduction of the Passat VR6 also marked the first time a VR6 powered vehicle was made available in North America before Europe. The Audi Q7 and restyled VW Touareg received the 3.6 L engine in late 2006, along with the Porsche Cayenne for 2008.

The 3.2 VR6 is also being used to power the new MK V Golf R32, while the new Passat R36, available from early 2008, received a new version of the 3.6 L engine, with 300 PS (221 kW/295 hp), standard four wheel drive and standard DSG gearbox.

[edit] Usage

The VR6 was used by Volkswagen in:

The VR6 is also used in other Volkswagen Group products, namely:

The Porsche Cayenne, which shares its chassis with the VW Touareg, also uses the 3.2 L VR6 as its base engine.

The VR5 was used by in the following Volkswagen Group products:


v • d • e

Volkswagen VR6 engine timeline, 1990–present


Engine Codes – Displacement


































12v VR6

AAA – 2.8L

Passat B3

Passat B4

Corrado SLC

Golf MkIII / Jetta/Vento MkIII

ABV – 2.9L

Passat B4

Corrado SLC

Golf Syncro/Golf MkIII

AFP – 2.8L

Golf MkIV / Jetta MkIV

10v VR5

AGZ – 2.3L

Passat B5

Bora MkIV

20v VR5

AZX/AGN – 2.3L

Passat B5.5

New Beetle

VW Bora

24v VR6

BDF / AQP / AUE / BDE / AYL – 2.8L

Jetta MkIV / Golf MkIV / Eurovan / Sharan

AXJ / BFH / AZZ / BKJ / BDL – 3.2L

New Beetle RSI

VW Golf R32 (MkIV)

VW Golf R32 (MkV)

BWS – 3.6L FSI

Passat B6/R36

[edit] Other applications of VR6 technology

Volkswagen has also developed a series of engines which use narrow angle designs mated together at 72 degrees. For example, two VR6 engines mated together at 72 degrees result in a W12 configuration, which is significantly shorter than a V12 engine, but only marginally wider. W8 and W16 designs were developed in a similar fashion. The W8 uses two four-cylinder VR engines mated together, and the W16 uses two eight-cylinder VR banks.

Though Volkswagen describes these compound VR engines as being of W configuration, it is more correct to describe them as staggered-bank V configuration engines, in keeping with the staggered-straight VR geometry.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

Sister project

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: VR6 engines

v • d • e

Reciprocating engines and engine configurations


Single · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 12 · 14


2 · 4 · 6 · 8 · 10 · 12 · 16


2 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 8 · 10 · 12 · 16 · 20 · 24


8 · 12 · 16 · 18

Other inline

H · U · Square four · VR · Opposed · X


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Accident with a dog on November 6, 2008

To your right are pictures of my Volkswagen Jetta GLI after hitting a large dog. I was not able to drive the car home since the radiator broke. I was on my way home from Brownsville to McAllen, Texas on Highway 281 going Northwest. I called 911 and no one answered and ended up being towed home by a friend.
What was broken on the car: bumper, lower grills were missing, lower spoiler and splash guard, broken radiator support, condenser, radiator, and one tire had a ball on it. After contacting Progressive I was told that I had 2 choices of companies to fix my car: Frank Smith Toyota or Collision Center, none of them were my choice which I told them. So I took what I thought was the best of the 2………………….. Frank Smith ended up fixing the car, so I thought. Well, I was promised the car on November 15 2008. I showed up on November 17 to check the car out and I was promised to have all OEM parts on the car besides the condenser and radiator. Well, the bumper was an aftermarket after all and looked horrible: it had an .5 inch gap on the right fender and bumper and the grills did not fit in their openings, besides that it had a nice orange peel paint job as well. So I rejected the car. It took till November 20 to get the OEM bumper etc. When I saw the car with the OEM bumper it had the lisence plate loose, I noticed that the radiator support was not correct either, and the emission, a/c, and vacuum stickers were missing as well. I took the car since I had just bought the car from them.
The following day I checked the car out if there were anymore things wrong with it. Well, made me very angry. The horns were disconnected and when I pulled out the grill I saw a cracked radiator support. This was so because of the after market part of course! I had to reinstall the lisence plate retainer myself (correctly) since it was about to fall off (I was told that this was the way to install it). I think they thought I was an idiot, or something. Well, I ended up fixing the car myself and there were many parts missing or wrong ones installed. Anyhow the pictures are posted of the repairs I have done.
Let me know if you have questions or comments about Volkswagen.
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Great News!!! I hope you like this watermelons!

Watermelon may offer Viagra-like effects

Ingredient helps relax blood vessels, but don’t expect fireworks all night

Watermelons contain an ingredient called citrulline that can trigger production of a compound that helps relax the body’s blood vessels, similar to what happens when a man takes Viagra, said scientists in Texas.
Tony Gutierrez / AP
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updated 7:57 a.m. CT, Thurs., July. 3, 2008

LUBBOCK, Texas – A slice of cool, fresh watermelon is a juicy way to top off a Fourth of July cookout and one that researchers say has effects similar to Viagra — but don’t necessarily expect it to keep the fireworks all night long.

Watermelons contain an ingredient called citrulline that can trigger production of a compound that helps relax the body’s blood vessels, similar to what happens when a man takes Viagra, said scientists in Texas, one of the nation’s top producers of the seedless variety.

Found in the flesh and rind of watermelons, citrulline reacts with the body’s enzymes when consumed in large quantities and is changed into arginine, an amino acid that benefits the heart and the circulatory and immune systems.

"Arginine boosts nitric oxide, which relaxes blood vessels, the same basic effect that Viagra has, to treat erectile dysfunction and maybe even prevent it," said Bhimu Patil, a researcher and director of Texas A&M’s Fruit and Vegetable Improvement Center. "Watermelon may not be as organ-specific as Viagra, but it’s a great way to relax blood vessels without any drug side effects."

Todd Wehner, who studies watermelon breeding at North Carolina State University, said anyone taking Viagra shouldn’t expect the same result from watermelon.

"It sounds like it would be an effect that would be interesting but not a substitute for any medical treatment," Wehner said.

The nitric oxide can also help with angina, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular problems, according to the study, which was paid for by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Mostly in the rind
More citrulline — about 60 percent — is found in watermelon rind than in the flesh, Patil said, but that can vary. But scientists may be able to find ways to boost the concentrations in the flesh, he said.

Citrulline is found in all colors of watermelon and is highest in the yellow-fleshed types, said Penelope Perkins-Veazie, a USDA researcher in Lane, Okla.

She said Patil’s research is valid, but with a caveat: One would need to eat about six cups of watermelon to get enough citrulline to boost the body’s arginine level.

"The problem you have when you eat a lot of watermelon is you tend to run to the bathroom more," Perkins-Veazie said.

Watermelon is a diuretic and was a homeopathic treatment for kidney patients before dialysis became widespread.

Another issue is the amount of sugar that much watermelon would spill into the bloodstream — a jolt that could cause cramping, Perkins-Veazie said.

Patil said he would like to do future studies on how to reduce the sugar content in watermelon.

The relationship between citrulline and arginine might also prove helpful to those who are obese or suffer from type-2 diabetes. The beneficial effects — among them the ability to relax blood vessels, much like Viagra does — are beginning to be revealed in research.

Citrulline is present in other curcubits, like cucumbers and cantaloupe, at very low levels, and in the milk protein casein. The highest concentrations of citrulline are found in walnut seedlings, Perkins-Veazie said.

"But they’re bitter and most people don’t want to eat them," she said.

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My parents often wondered why I did so many different things…….. I think it was due to this book in German School.

Max and Moritz ( I loved to read this book, and wonder where the copy went?)

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Max and Moritz.

Max and Moritz.

For the rockets launched in 1934 by Wernher von Braun, see Aggregate_series#A2

Max and Moritz (A Story of Seven Boyish Pranks) is a German language illustrated story in verse. This highly inventive, blackly humorous tale, told entirely in rhymed couplets, was written and illustrated by Wilhelm Busch and published in 1865. Many familiar with comic strip history consider it to have been the direct inspiration for the Katzenjammer Kids.



[edit] Cultural significance

Busch’s classic tale of the terrible duo (now in the public domain) has since become a proud part of the culture in German-speaking countries. Even today, parents usually read these tales to their not-yet-literate children. To this day in Germany and Austria, a certain familiarity with the story is still presumed, as it is often referenced in mass communication. The two leering, cretinous faces are synonymous with mischief, and appear almost logo-like in advertising and even graffiti.

Max and Moritz is the first published original foreign children’s book in Japan which was translated into rōmaji by Shinjirō Shibutani and Kaname Oyaizu in 1887 as Wampaku monogatari ("Naughty stories").[1]

[edit] The pranks

It is not necessary to reprint the entire story here, as it is both long and freely available on the internet. A summary of the pranks (and sample from the preface) should provide the essential flavor.

There have been several English translations of the original German verses over the years, but all have maintained the original trochaic tetrameter:

[edit] Preface

Ah, how oft we read or hear of
Boys we almost stand in fear of!
For example, take these stories
Of two youths, named Max and Moritz,
Who, instead of early turning
Their young minds to useful learning,
Often leered with horrid features
At their lessons and their teachers.

Look now at the empty head: he
Is for mischief always ready.
Teasing creatures – climbing fences,
Stealing apples, pears, and quinces,
Is, of course, a deal more pleasant,
And far easier for the present,
Than to sit in schools or churches,
Fixed like roosters on their perches

But O dear, O dear, O deary,
When the end comes sad and dreary!
‘Tis a dreadful thing to tell
That on Max and Moritz fell!
All they did this book rehearses,
Both in pictures and in verses.

[edit] First Trick: The Widow

The boys tie several crusts of bread together with thread, and lay this trap in an old widow’s chicken yard, causing all the chickens to become fatally entangled.

[edit] Second Trick: The Widow II

As the widow cooks her chickens, the boys sneak onto her roof. When she leaves her kitchen momentarily, the boys steal the chickens using a fishing pole down the chimney. The widow hears her dog barking and hurries upstairs, finds the hearth empty and beats the dog.

[edit] Third Trick: The Tailor

The boys torment a well-liked tailor who has a fast stream flowing in front of his house. They saw through the planks of his wooden bridge, making a precarious gap, then taunt him by making goat noises, until he runs outside. The bridge breaks; the tailor is swept away and nearly drowns (but for two geese, which he grabs a hold of and fly high to safety).

[edit] Fourth Trick: The Teacher

While their devout teacher is busy at church, the boys invade his home and fill his favorite pipe with gunpowder. When he lights the pipe, the blast knocks him unconscious, blackens his skin and burns away all his hair.

[edit] Fifth Trick: The Uncle

The boys collect bags full of May beetles, which they promptly deposit in their Uncle’s (Fritz) bed. Uncle is nearly asleep when he feels the bugs walking on his nose. Horrified, he goes into a bug-killing frenzy with a shoe.

[edit] Sixth Trick: The Baker

The boys invade a bakery which they believe is closed. Attempting to steal pretzels, they fall into a vat of dough. The baker returns, catches the breaded pair, and bakes them. But they survive, and escape by gnawing through their crusts.

[edit] Final Trick: The Farmer

Hiding out in a farmer’s grain storage area, the boys slit some grain sacks. A farmer arrives and immediately notices the problem. He puts the boys in the sack instead, then takes it to the mill. The boys are ground to bits and devoured by ducks. Later, no one expresses regret! (The mill really exists in Ebergötzen, Germany, and can be visited)

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I love stories from my past (Going to school in Germany 1960’s)

Struwwelpeter (Slovenly Peter)

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Struwwelpeter in a children's book from 1917.

Struwwelpeter in a children’s book from 1917.

Der Struwwelpeter (1845) is a popular German children’s book by Heinrich Hoffmann which has been translated into English. It comprises ten illustrated and rhymed stories, mostly about children. Each has a clear moral that demonstrates the disastrous consequences of misbehavior in an exaggerated way. The title of the first story provides the title of the whole book. Literally translated, Struwwel-Peter means Shaggy-Peter.



[edit] History

Hoffmann, a Frankfurt physician, wanted to buy a picture book for his son for Christmas in 1844. Not impressed by what the stores had to offer, he instead bought a notebook and wrote his own stories and pictures. Hoffmann was persuaded by friends to publish the book anonymously as Lustige Geschichten und drollige Bilder mit 15 schön kolorierten Tafeln für Kinder von 3-6 Jahren (Funny Stories and Jocose Pictures with 15 Beautifully Coloured Panels for Children Aged 3 to 6) in 1845. It was not until the third edition in 1858 that the book was published under the title Struwwelpeter.

Struwwelpeter has been translated into several languages. The first English translation appeared in 1848. Mark Twain’s English translation of the book is called "Slovenly Peter."

In 2006, Fantagraphics Books published the first completely digital version of Struwwelpeter, reinterpreted and illustrated by Bob Staake.

[edit] Stories

  1. "Struwwelpeter" (Shaggy Peter) describes a boy who does not groom himself properly and is consequently unpopular.
  2. In "Die Geschichte vom bösen Friederich" (The Story of Cruel Frederick), a violent boy terrorizes animals and people. Eventually he is bitten by a dog, who goes on to eat the boy’s sausages while he is bedridden.
  3. In "Die gar traurige Geschichte mit dem Feuerzeug" (The Dreadful Story of Pauline and the Matches), a girl plays with matches and burns to death.
  4. In "Die Geschichte von den schwarzen Buben" (The Story of the Inky Boys), Nikolas (a tall, bearded man who is not identified or explained further) catches three boys teasing a dark-skinned boy. To teach them a lesson, he dips the three boys in black ink, to make them even darker-skinned than the boy they’d teased.
  5. "Die Geschichte von dem wilden Jäger" (The Story of the Wild Huntsman) is the only story not primarily focused on children. In it, a rabbit steals a hunter’s rifle and eyeglasses and begins to hunt the hunter. In the ensuing chaos the rabbit’s child is burned by hot coffee.
  6. In "Die Geschichte vom Daumenlutscher" (The Story of Little Suck-a-Thumb), a mother warns her son not to suck his thumbs. However, when she goes out of the house he resumes his thumb sucking, until a roving tailor appears and cuts off his thumbs with giant scissors.
  7. "Die Geschichte vom Suppen-Kaspar" (The Story of Kaspar who did not have any Soup) begins as Kaspar, a healthy, strong boy, proclaims that he will no longer eat his soup. Over the next five days he wastes away and dies.
  8. In "Die Geschichte vom Zappel-Philipp" (The Story of Fidgety Philip), a boy who won’t sit still at dinner accidentally knocks all of the food onto the floor, to his parents’ great displeasure.
  9. "Die Geschichte von Hans Guck-in-die-Luft" (The Story of Hans Look-in-the-Air) concerns a boy who habitually fails to watch where he’s walking. One day he walks into a river; he is soon rescued, but his portfolio drifts away.
  10. In "Die Geschichte vom fliegenden Robert" (The Story of Flying Robert), a boy goes outside during a storm. The wind catches his umbrella and sends him to places unknown, and presumably to his doom.
Zappelphilipp, illustration from the 1845 edition

Zappelphilipp, illustration from the 1845 edition

[edit] International curiosities

In one English version of "The Story of the Inky Boys" Nikolas is Tall Agrippa.

In the same version there are more differences – for instance "The Story of the Wild Huntsman" is now "The Story of the Man Who Went Out Shooting." In "The Dreadful Story of Pauline and the Matches" (or "…Harriet and the Matches" in this version) the cats are not named. In other versions they are – the original German was "Minz" and "Maunz." Also in this version, "The Story of Kaspar who did not have any Soup" becomes "The Story of Augustus Who Would Not Have Any Soup."

[edit] Stage adaptations

Shockheaded Peter (SHP) is a musical entertainment based on Struwwelpeter, created by Julian Bleach, Anthony Cairns, Julian Crouch, Graeme Gilmour, Tamzin Griffin, Jo Pocock, Phelim McDermott, Michael Morris and The Tiger Lillies (Martyn Jacques, Adrian Huge and Adrian Stout). SHP combines elements of pantomime and puppetry with musical versions of the poems. Generally, the songs closely follow the text of the poems, but there are significant differences, tending towards giving the songs a much darker tone than the poems. Whereas the children in the poems only sometimes die, in the musical they all do. Commissioned by the West Yorkshire Playhouse in Leeds and the Hammersmith Lyric in West London, the show debuted in 1998 in Leeds before moving to London and subsequently to world tours.

In 2006 a new production of the tales, called Struwwelpeter – In English! was taken to the 60th Edinburgh Festival in August. The production used a variety of magic, mime, physical theatre, and black-comedy to recreate the tales. The show had a sell-out run and is returning in 2007 for a second run of the sell out show.[1]

[edit] Psychological interpretation

Apart from Struwwelpeter, other descriptions, especially "Fidgety Philip" (Zappelphillip) and John-Look-in-the-Air (Hans-Guck-in-die-Luft), are strongly believed to describe persons with Attention Deficit Disorder. ADD in Germany is often called the "Zappelphillip-Syndrom".

[edit] Influence and references

  • There is a Struwwelpeter museum in Frankfurt, Germany.
  • The comic book writer Grant Morrison drew inspiration from Struwwelpeter during his tenure on the DC comic Doom Patrol when inventing several enemy monsters. The Tailor from The Story of Little Suck-a-Thumb provided inspiration for the Scissormen in issues #19 to #22, where Struwwelpeter is quoted directly[citation needed], and apparitions named The Inky Boys and Flying Robert appear in #25, along with a special cameo appearance by a Scissorman.
  • Jasper Fforde’s book The Fourth Bear features a town with terrified, but obedient children, who always eat their soup, don’t play with matches, and don’t suck their thumbs. Some folks in town are actually missing their thumbs, courtesy of a scissor wielding maniac in red pants.
  • In Hellblazer # 204, Struwwelpeter (Shockheaded Peter) is summoned to fight childhood fears. About him it is said that ‘He was the worst, the scariest, so I made him be on my side’.
  • In Rosetta Loy’s La porta del acqua, 2000: Rizzoli; Milano, the infant persona’s German governess Anne-Marie is continually reading blood-thirsty stories from Struwwelpeter

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